Was the engine making any scary noises??? And If you turned it off asap Im sure that you are ok. I had this happen to my Moms VW GTI VR6 this summer. She had the coolant flushed and brakes done and they forgot to clamp one of the lower radiator hoses. It did this same thing and she turned it off immediately after seeing the temp and the engine was fine.
As long as you werent hearing like crazy loud pings or something from engine I would think that you would be fine just like my gti was. I would say it just depends on how long you drove it before you noticed the temp.